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RECORD MANUFACTURING

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The operations involved in the mass production of records. The procedure may include disk duplication, e.g., of CDs, music video CDs, or CD-ROMs, or, as in the case of the producing of the old style vinyl records, the processing and pressing of the vinyl disks themselves.  See Cross-links: ACETATE, PUSH MONEY, RETURN PRIVILEGES, RECORD, MASTER, RECORD OVERSHIPMENTS, RECORD RETURNS.

Acetate:
1) A transparent cellulose plastic. It is the raw material used to make phonograph records and backing for magnetic recording tape.
2) Any individually cut record made on a record cutting lathe. They are usually made from the master mix in the mastering lab. Back when acetates were the standard, they were cut to evaluate the sound of the final pressed records. Since simple flat transfers did not sound identical to the master tapes of old. The mastering engineer usually equalized and/or compressed the tape to enhance the sound of the acetate. The sound of the acetate would usually have been approved by both the A & R person and the producer. Often, it took more than one cutting attempt to attain the desired sound. Acetates were cut in mono (45 rpm) or stereo (33 1/3 rpm). Their standard sizes were 7", 10", or 12". They were single or double faced, i.e., cut on one or both sides. They were thicker and more ridged than pressed records. They were also more susceptible to wear because of the special softness of the plastic required to accommodate the cutting head. Because of this, the approved acetate would seldom be played to assure it was in excellent condition when it was compared to a test pressing of the production run. The master acetate (master lacquer) was then cut using the same approved settings.  See Cross-links: MASTER,
under "Master Acetate."
3) The acetate could also be called a phonograph record, or a dub.  See Cross-links: RECORD, COPYRIGHT LAW under "Phonorecords."
4) Back then, a 45 rpm demonstration record (demo) was also called an ascetate.  See Cross-links: DEMO.

Pancake:
In the production of old style vinyl records, a pre-heated vinyl disk that is placed in a record press between the stampers. After it is pressed and trimmed it becomes the marketable record.  See Cross-links: RECORD MANUFACTURING under "Press," "Record Processing," and "Record Trimming."

Press:
1) Short for "record press" which, in the production of old style vinyl records, is a device that makes a record by pressing a heated vinyl pancake between two stampers.
2) In the production of old style vinyl records, to manufacture a record or number of records from a set of stampers by using a record press. This record pressing process is used to mass produce vinyl records.
See:
RECORD MANUFACTURING under "Pancake," "Stamper," and "Record Processing.

Pressing Plant:
In the production of old style vinyl records, the factory where records are manufactured.  See Cross-links: RECORD MANUFACTURING under "Press," and "Record Processing."

Processing Plant:
In the production of old style vinyl records, a factory (usually part of a pressing plant) that makes mothers and stampers.  See Cross-links: MASTER under "Master Acetate," RECORD MANUFACTURING under "Record Processing," and "Press."

Record Cutting:
Also called "disc cutting" or "record mastering," it is, in the production of old style vinyl records, the process of making a master acetate from a master recording on a record cutting lathe. It is also called record mastering.  See Cross-links: RECORD MANUFACTURING under "Record Processing," MASTER under "Master Acetate."

Record Cutting Lathe:
In the production of old style vinyl records, a machine that cuts a master acetate. The acetate is reproduced from a master recording.  See Cross-links: MASTER under "Master Acetate."

Record Processing:
In the production of old style vinyl records, the procedure involved in making converted masters or stampers. First, the master acetate is cut from the master recording. Then, the acetate is silvered and peeled to obtain a converted master that can be used to stamp a small run of vinyl records (1,000 to 1,500). If a large number of records is required, the converted master is again silvered and peeled. This creates a mother that is plated and peeled to make a stamper.  See Cross-links: MASTER under "Master Acetate," RECORD MANUFACTURING under "Press," and "Record Trimming."

Record Trimming:
In the production of old style vinyl records, the cutting of the excess vinyl from the edge of a pressed record.  See Cross-links: RECORD MANUFACTURING under "Record Processing," and "Pancake."

Stamper:
1) In the production of old style vinyl records, the metal mold used in a record press that shapes the heated vinyl pancake into a record. Each record is made from different stampers--one for each side.
2) In the production of old style vinyl records, a machine that stamps records.
See:
MASTER under "Mother," RECORD MANUFACTURING under "Stamping," "Pancake," and "Record Processing."

Stamping:
In the production of old style vinyl records, a manufacturing procedure for the mass production of vinyl records. Records are made by a stamping machine (stamper).  See Cross-links: RECORD MANUFACTURING under "Stamper," MASTER under "Mother."

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